Why Your Leaky Gut Syndrome And Gut Problems Are Not Fixed Yet

With popularization of different diets for gut health and gut repair strategies, including probiotics becoming mainstream, many people coming to our clinic tell us that they have “healed their gut problems” because they went on a specific diet or took supplements. However, most of the time when we test for leaky gut syndrome, they still come up as having it, much to their surprise. In today’s broadcast we will discuss why you’re gut healing strategies may not have been as effective as you thought in healing your leaky gut, IBS, or SIBO and possible mechanisms to make your attempts at healing your gastrointestinal tract more permanent.
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1.The role for gut permeability in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes–a solid or leaky concept?
Li X, Atkinson MA.
Pediatr Diabetes. 2015 Nov;16(7):485-92. doi: 10.1111/pedi.12305. Epub 2015 Aug 13. Review.
PMID: 26269193 [PubMed – in process]
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2.Gut-Brain: Major Depressive Disorder, Hypothalamic Dysfunction, and High Calcium Score Associated With Leaky Gut.
Dach J.
Altern Ther Health Med. 2015 Aug;21(S3):10-15.
PMID: 26348609 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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3.Clinical science workshop: targeting the gut-liver-brain axis.
Patel VC, White H, Støy S, Bajaj JS, Shawcross DL.
Metab Brain Dis. 2015 Oct 8. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 26446022 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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4.An agent-based modeling framework for evaluating hypotheses on risks for developing autism: effects of the gut microbial environment.
Weston B, Fogal B, Cook D, Dhurjati P.
Med Hypotheses. 2015 Apr;84(4):395-401. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2015.01.027. Epub 2015 Jan 28.
PMID: 25670416 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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5.Gut microbiota-derived outer membrane vesicles: under-recognized major players in health and disease?
Muraca M, Putignani L, Fierabracci A, Teti A, Perilongo G.
Discov Med. 2015 May;19(106):343-8.
PMID: 26105697 [PubMed – in process] Free Article
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6.The role of IgG hypersensitivity in the pathogenesis and therapy of depressive disorders.
Karaku?a-Juchnowicz H, Szachta P, Opolska A, Morylowska-Topolska J, Ga??cka M, Juchnowicz D, Krukow P, Lasik Z.
Nutr Neurosci. 2014 Sep 30. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 25268936 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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7.Environment, dysbiosis, immunity and sex-specific susceptibility: a translational hypothesis for regressive autism pathogenesis.
Mezzelani A, Landini M, Facchiano F, Raggi ME, Villa L, Molteni M, De Santis B, Brera C, Caroli AM, Milanesi L, Marabotti A.
Nutr Neurosci. 2015 May;18(4):145-61. doi: 10.1179/1476830513Y.0000000108. Epub 2014 Jan 21. Review.
PMID: 24621061 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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8.A dysbiotic subpopulation of alcohol-dependent subjects.
de Timary P, Leclercq S, Stärkel P, Delzenne N.
Gut Microbes. 2015 Nov 2;6(6):388-91. doi: 10.1080/19490976.2015.1107696.
PMID: 26727422 [PubMed – in process]
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9.Questioning the bacterial overgrowth hypothesis of irritable bowel syndrome: an epidemiologic and evolutionary perspective.
Spiegel BM.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011 Jun;9(6):461-9; quiz e59. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2011.02.030. Epub 2011 Mar 11. Review.
PMID: 21397724 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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10.Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?
Thompson JR.
World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Jan 28;22(4):1331-4. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i4.1331.
PMID: 26819502 [PubMed – in process] Free PMC Article
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11.Potential Causes and Present Pharmacotherapy of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: An Overview.
Bokic T, Storr M, Schicho R.
Pharmacology. 2015;96(1-2):76-85. doi: 10.1159/000435816. Epub 2015 Jul 1.
PMID: 26139425 [PubMed – in process] Free Article
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12.Rifaximin for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients without irritable bowel syndrome.
Boltin D, Perets TT, Shporn E, Aizic S, Levy S, Niv Y, Dickman R.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2014 Oct 17;13:49. doi: 10.1186/s12941-014-0049-x.
PMID: 25319626 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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13.Unclear abdominal discomfort: pivotal role of carbohydrate malabsorption.
Goebel-Stengel M, Stengel A, Schmidtmann M, Voort Iv, Kobelt P, Mönnikes H.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2014 Apr 30;20(2):228-35. doi: 10.5056/jnm.2014.20.2.228.
PMID: 24840375 [PubMed] Free PMC Article
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14.Current views on the etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnostics, treatment and correlation with other nosological entities of SIBO.
Miazga A, Osi?ski M, Cichy W, ?aba R.
Adv Med Sci. 2015 Mar;60(1):118-24. doi: 10.1016/j.advms.2014.09.001. Epub 2014 Oct 6. Review.
PMID: 25657082 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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15.Low ileocecal valve pressure is significantly associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).
Roland BC, Ciarleglio MM, Clarke JO, Semler JR, Tomakin E, Mullin GE, Pasricha PJ.
Dig Dis Sci. 2014 Jun;59(6):1269-77. doi: 10.1007/s10620-014-3166-7. Epub 2014 May 3.
PMID: 24795035 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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16.Small Intestinal Transit Time Is Delayed in Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth.
Roland BC, Ciarleglio MM, Clarke JO, Semler JR, Tomakin E, Mullin GE, Pasricha PJ.
J Clin Gastroenterol. 2015 Aug;49(7):571-6. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000257.
PMID: 25319735 [PubMed – in process]
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17.Relationship of cytokines, oxidative stress and GI motility with bacterial overgrowth in ulcerative colitis patients.
Rana SV, Sharma S, Kaur J, Prasad KK, Sinha SK, Kochhar R, Malik A, Morya RK.
J Crohns Colitis. 2014 Aug;8(8):859-65. doi: 10.1016/j.crohns.2014.01.007. Epub 2014 Jan 21.
PMID: 24456736 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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18.Link between hypothyroidism and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.
Patil AD.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2014 May;18(3):307-9. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.131155. Review.
PMID: 24944923 [PubMed] Free PMC Article
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19.Gastrointestinal motility disorder assessment in systemic sclerosis.
Savarino E, Mei F, Parodi A, Ghio M, Furnari M, Gentile A, Berdini M, Di Sario A, Bendia E, Bonazzi P, Scarpellini E, Laterza L, Savarino V, Gasbarrini A.
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013 Jun;52(6):1095-100. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kes429. Epub 2013 Feb 4.
PMID: 23382360 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free Article
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20.How to Test and Treat Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: an Evidence-Based Approach.
Rezaie A, Pimentel M, Rao SS.
Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2016 Jan;18(2):8. doi: 10.1007/s11894-015-0482-9.
PMID: 26780631 [PubMed – in process]
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21.Dysmotility and proton pump inhibitor use are independent risk factors for small intestinal bacterial and/or fungal overgrowth.
Jacobs C, Coss Adame E, Attaluri A, Valestin J, Rao SS.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Jun;37(11):1103-11. doi: 10.1111/apt.12304. Epub 2013 Apr 10.
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22.Autoimmunity Links Vinculin to the Pathophysiology of Chronic Functional Bowel Changes Following Campylobacter jejuni Infection in a Rat Model.
Pimentel M, Morales W, Pokkunuri V, Brikos C, Kim SM, Kim SE, Triantafyllou K, Weitsman S, Marsh Z, Marsh E, Chua KS, Srinivasan S, Barlow GM, Chang C.
Dig Dis Sci. 2015 May;60(5):1195-205. doi: 10.1007/s10620-014-3435-5. Epub 2014 Nov 26.
PMID: 25424202 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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23.Small intestinal clustered contractions and bacterial overgrowth: a frequent finding in obese patients.
Madrid AM, Poniachik J, Quera R, Defilippi C.
Dig Dis Sci. 2011 Jan;56(1):155-60. doi: 10.1007/s10620-010-1239-9. Epub 2010 May 1.
PMID: 20431947 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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24.Clinical trial: the combination of rifaximin with partially hydrolysed guar gum is more effective than rifaximin alone in eradicating small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.
Furnari M, Parodi A, Gemignani L, Giannini EG, Marenco S, Savarino E, Assandri L, Fazio V, Bonfanti D, Inferrera S, Savarino V.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Oct;32(8):1000-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2010.04436.x. Epub 2010 Aug 18.
PMID: 20937045 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free Article
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25.Dietary Renaissance in IBS: Has Food Replaced Medications as a Primary Treatment Strategy?
Spencer M, Chey WD, Eswaran S.
Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol. 2014 Dec;12(4):424-40. doi: 10.1007/s11938-014-0031-x.
PMID: 25219357 [PubMed]
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26.Microbiota-host interactions in irritable bowel syndrome: epithelial barrier, immune regulation and brain-gut interactions.
Hyland NP, Quigley EM, Brint E.
World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Jul 21;20(27):8859-66. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i27.8859. Review.
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27.Colokinetic effect of noradrenaline in the spinal defecation center: implication for motility disorders.
Naitou K, Shiina T, Kato K, Nakamori H, Sano Y, Shimizu Y.
Sci Rep. 2015 Jul 28;5:12623. doi: 10.1038/srep12623.
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28.Brain and gut interactions in irritable bowel syndrome: new paradigms and new understandings.
Coss-Adame E, Rao SS.
Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2014 Apr;16(4):379. doi: 10.1007/s11894-014-0379-z. Review.
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29.Irritable bowel syndrome: a microbiome-gut-brain axis disorder?
Kennedy PJ, Cryan JF, Dinan TG, Clarke G.
World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Oct 21;20(39):14105-25. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i39.14105. Review.
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30.Stress and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Visceral Pain: Relevance to Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
Moloney RD, Johnson AC, O’Mahony SM, Dinan TG, Greenwood-Van Meerveld B, Cryan JF.
CNS Neurosci Ther. 2016 Feb;22(2):102-17. doi: 10.1111/cns.12490. Epub 2015 Dec 10. Review.
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31.Early-life stress selectively affects gastrointestinal but not behavioral responses in a genetic model of brain-gut axis dysfunction.
Hyland NP, O’Mahony SM, O’Malley D, O’Mahony CM, Dinan TG, Cryan JF.
Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2015 Jan;27(1):105-13. doi: 10.1111/nmo.12486. Epub 2014 Dec 2.
PMID: 25443141 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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32.Food: The Main Course to Wellness and Illness in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
Chey WD.
Am J Gastroenterol. 2016 Feb 9. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2016.12. [Epub ahead of print] Review.
PMID: 26856749 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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33.Chronic functional bowel syndrome enhances gut-brain axis dysfunction, neuroinflammation, cognitive impairment, and vulnerability to dementia.
Daulatzai MA.
Neurochem Res. 2014 Apr;39(4):624-44. doi: 10.1007/s11064-014-1266-6. Epub 2014 Mar 4. Review.
PMID: 24590859 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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34.The effect of curcumin on the brain-gut axis in rat model of irritable bowel syndrome: involvement of 5-HT-dependent signaling.
Yu Y, Wu S, Li J, Wang R, Xie X, Yu X, Pan J, Xu Y, Zheng L.
Metab Brain Dis. 2015 Feb;30(1):47-55. doi: 10.1007/s11011-014-9554-z. Epub 2014 May 8.
PMID: 24807589 [PubMed – in process]
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35.Brain-gut axis: from basic understanding to treatment of IBS and related disorders.
Camilleri M, Di Lorenzo C.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012 Apr;54(4):446-53. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0b013e31823d34c3. Review.
PMID: 22027566 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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36.Placebo analgesia in patients with functional and organic abdominal pain: a fMRI study in IBS, UC and healthy volunteers.
Schmid J, Langhorst J, Gaß F, Theysohn N, Benson S, Engler H, Gizewski ER, Forsting M, Elsenbruch S.
Gut. 2015 Mar;64(3):418-27. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306648. Epub 2014 May 15.
PMID: 24833636 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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37.Immunomodulation of enteric neural function in irritable bowel syndrome.
O’Malley D.
World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Jun 28;21(24):7362-6. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i24.7362.
PMID: 26139983 [PubMed – in process] Free PMC Article
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38.Changes in the modulation of spinal pain processing are related to severity in irritable bowel syndrome.
Bouhassira D, Moisset X, Jouet P, Duboc H, Coffin B, Sabate JM.
Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013 Jul;25(7):623-e468. doi: 10.1111/nmo.12123. Epub 2013 Apr 2.
PMID: 23551988 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free Article
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39.Altered brain spontaneous activity and connectivity network in irritable bowel syndrome patients: A resting-state fMRI study.
Ma X, Li S, Tian J, Jiang G, Wen H, Wang T, Fang J, Zhan W, Xu Y.
Clin Neurophysiol. 2015 Jun;126(6):1190-7. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2014.10.004. Epub 2014 Oct 12.
PMID: 25454279 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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40.Impact of psychological stress on irritable bowel syndrome.
Qin HY, Cheng CW, Tang XD, Bian ZX.
World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Oct 21;20(39):14126-31. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i39.14126. Review.
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41.Irritable bowel syndrome: Is it “irritable brain” or “irritable bowel”?
Padhy SK, Sahoo S, Mahajan S, Sinha SK.
J Neurosci Rural Pract. 2015 Oct-Dec;6(4):568-77. doi: 10.4103/0976-3147.169802. Review.
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42.The gut microbiota influences blood-brain barrier permeability in mice.
Braniste V, Al-Asmakh M, Kowal C, Anuar F, Abbaspour A, Tóth M, Korecka A, Bakocevic N, Ng LG, Kundu P, Gulyás B, Halldin C, Hultenby K, Nilsson H, Hebert H, Volpe BT, Diamond B, Pettersson S.
Sci Transl Med. 2014 Nov 19;6(263):263ra158. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3009759. Erratum in: Sci Transl Med. 2014 Dec 10;6(266):266er7. Guan, Ng Lai [corrected to Ng, Lai Guan].
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43.The effects of moderate exercise on chronic stress-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and antimicrobial defense.
Luo B, Xiang D, Nieman DC, Chen P.
Brain Behav Immun. 2014 Jul;39:99-106. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2013.11.013. Epub 2013 Nov 27.
PMID: 24291325 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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44.Effects of enteral nutrition on the barrier function of the intestinal mucosa and dopamine receptor expression in rats with traumatic brain injury.
Zhang X, Jiang X.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2015 Jan;39(1):114-23. doi: 10.1177/0148607113501881. Epub 2013 Sep 18.
PMID: 24047867 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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45.Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Altered Intestinal Permeability Induced by Combat Training Are Associated with Distinct Metabotypic Changes.
Phua LC, Wilder-Smith CH, Tan YM, Gopalakrishnan T, Wong RK, Li X, Kan ME, Lu J, Keshavarzian A, Chan EC.
J Proteome Res. 2015 Nov 6;14(11):4734-42. doi: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00603. Epub 2015 Oct 27.
PMID: 26506213 [PubMed – in process]
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46.Breaking down the barriers: the gut microbiome, intestinal permeability and stress-related psychiatric disorders.
Kelly JR, Kennedy PJ, Cryan JF, Dinan TG, Clarke G, Hyland NP.
Front Cell Neurosci. 2015 Oct 14;9:392. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00392. eCollection 2015. Review.
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47.Labetalol Prevents Intestinal Dysfunction Induced by Traumatic Brain Injury.
Lang Y, Fu F, Sun D, Xi C, Chen F.
PLoS One. 2015 Jul 17;10(7):e0133215. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133215. eCollection 2015.
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