Rheumatoid Arthritis – Can Antibiotics and Vegetarian Diets Help?

Today we are discussing Rheumatoid Arthritis and how this disease may be caused by infections.  Today we will be highlighting a bacteria found in the gut and urinary tract of RA patients termed Proteus mirabilis, which has been shown to be a critical factor in the propagation of the RA immune response.  We will also be discussing research articles on how vegetarian diets have been shown to help some RA patients, and even more exciting information on how the vegetarian diets have been shown to decrease Proteus mirabilis in the body.
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References:
1. Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by a Proteus urinary tract infection.
Ebringer A, Rashid T.
APMIS. 2014 May;122(5):363-8. doi: 10.1111/apm.12154. Epub 2013 Aug 29. Review.
PMID: 23992372 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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2. Autoimmunity in Rheumatic Diseases Is Induced by Microbial Infections via Crossreactivity or Molecular Mimicry.
Rashid T, Ebringer A.
Autoimmune Dis. 2012;2012:539282. doi: 10.1155/2012/539282. Epub 2012 Feb 20.
PMID: 22454761 [PubMed] Free PMC Article
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3. Therapy: Gut-mediated autoimmune arthritis treated with antibiotics.
Ebringer A.
Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2010 Nov;6(11):622-3. doi: 10.1038/nrrheum.2010.163.
PMID: 21037561 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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4. Rheumatoid arthritis in smokers could be linked to Proteus urinary tract infections.
Rashid T, Ebringer A.
Med Hypotheses. 2008;70(5):975-80. Epub 2007 Nov 5.
PMID: 17983708 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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5. Diet therapy in rheumatoid arthritis.
Kjeldsen-Kragh J, Haugen M, Fførre O.
Lancet. 1992 Jan 25;339(8787):250. No abstract available.
PMID: 1346210 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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6. The influence of fast and vegetarian diet on parameters of nutritional status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Haugen MA, Kjeldsen-Kragh J, Skakkebaek N, Landaas S, Sjaastad O, Movinkel P, Førre O.
Clin Rheumatol. 1993 Mar;12(1):62-9.
PMID: 8467614 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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7. A pilot study of the effect of an elemental diet in the management of rheumatoid arthritis.
Haugen MA, Kjeldsen-Kragh J, Førre O.
Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1994 May-Jun;12(3):275-9.
PMID: 8070160 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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8. Vegetarian diet for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: can the clinical effects be explained by the psychological characteristics of the patients?
Kjeldsen-Kragh J, Haugen M, Førre O, Laache H, Malt UF.
Br J Rheumatol. 1994 Jun;33(6):569-75.
PMID: 8205407 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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9. Changes of faecal flora in rheumatoid arthritis during fasting and one-year vegetarian diet.
Peltonen R, Kjeldsen-Kragh J, Haugen M, Tuominen J, Toivanen P, Førre O, Eerola E.
Br J Rheumatol. 1994 Jul;33(7):638-43.
PMID: 8019792 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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10. Vegetarian diet for patients with rheumatoid arthritis–status: two years after introduction of the diet.
Kjeldsen-Kragh J, Haugen M, Borchgrevink CF, Førre O.
Clin Rheumatol. 1994 Sep;13(3):475-82. Erratum in: Clin Rheumatol 1994 Dec;13(4):649.
PMID: 7835013 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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11. Fasting followed by vegetarian diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.
Müller H, de Toledo FW, Resch KL.
Scand J Rheumatol. 2001;30(1):1-10. Review.
PMID: 11252685 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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12. Decrease in anti-Proteus mirabilis but not anti-Escherichia coli antibody levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with fasting and a one year vegetarian diet.
Kjeldsen-Kragh J, Rashid T, Dybwad A, Sioud M, Haugen M, Førre O, Ebringer A.
Ann Rheum Dis. 1995 Mar;54(3):221-4.
PMID: 7748020 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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13. Rheumatoid arthritis treated with vegetarian diets.
Kjeldsen-Kragh J.
Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Sep;70(3 Suppl):594S-600S.
PMID: 10479237 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free Article
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14. Microbiome therapy gains market traction.
Reardon S.
Nature. 2014 May 15;509(7500):269-70. doi: 10.1038/509269a. No abstract available.
PMID: 24828169 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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15. Expansion of intestinal Prevotella copri correlates with enhanced susceptibility to arthritis.
Scher JU, Sczesnak A, Longman RS, Segata N, Ubeda C, Bielski C, Rostron T, Cerundolo V, Pamer EG, Abramson SB, Huttenhower C, Littman DR.
Elife. 2013 Nov 5;2:e01202. doi: 10.7554/eLife.01202.
PMID: 24192039 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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16. A gut feeling about arthritis.
Mathis D.
Elife. 2013 Nov 5;2:e01608. doi: 10.7554/eLife.01608.
PMID: 24192040 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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17. Rheumatoid arthritis: proposal for the use of anti-microbial therapy in early cases.
Ebringer A, Rashid T, Wilson C.
Scand J Rheumatol. 2003;32(1):2-11. Review.
PMID: 12635939 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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18. Rheumatoid arthritis is linked to Proteus–the evidence.
Rashid T, Ebringer A.
Clin Rheumatol. 2007 Jul;26(7):1036-43. Epub 2007 Jan 6. Review.
PMID: 17206398 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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19. Rheumatoid arthritis patients have elevated antibodies to cross-reactive and non cross-reactive antigens from Proteus microbes.
Rashid T, Jayakumar KS, Binder A, Ellis S, Cunningham P, Ebringer A.
Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2007 Mar-Apr;25(2):259-67.
PMID: 17543151 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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20. Antibiotic sensitivity and proticine typing of Proteus mirabilis strains associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
Wilson C, Senior BW, Tiwana H, Caparros-Wanderley W, Ebringer A.
Rheumatol Int. 1998;17(5):203-5.
PMID: 9542782 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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21. Proteus IgG antibodies and C-reactive protein in English, Norwegian and Spanish patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Rashid T, Darlington G, Kjeldsen-Kragh J, Forre O, Collado A, Ebringer A.
Clin Rheumatol. 1999;18(3):190-5.
PMID: 11206342 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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22. Rheumatoid arthritis, Proteus, anti-CCP antibodies and Karl Popper.
Ebringer A, Rashid T, Wilson C.
Autoimmun Rev. 2010 Feb;9(4):216-23. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2009.10.006. Epub 2009 Nov 4.
PMID: 19895906 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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