ADHD: what do you do when Ritalin and Adderall no longer work?

Today we are discussing ADHD, and what you do when the medications do not work. In today’s broadcast we are going to give you an overview of ADHD and how the medications work but also new findings in the literature as to why many patients with ADHD have autoimmune or allergic disorders that appear to be exacerbating or propagating their symptoms. We will also be discussing the specific areas of the brain involved with this condition. Please enjoy!
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1.Association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and celiac disease: a brief report.
Niederhofer H.
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2011;13(3). pii: PCC.10br01104. doi: 10.4088/PCC.10br01104.
PMID: 21977364 [PubMed] Free PMC Article
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2.Frequency of celiac disease in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Güngör S, Celilo?lu OS, Ozcan OO, Raif SG, Selimo?lu MA.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013 Feb;56(2):211-4. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0b013e318272b7bc.
PMID: 22983377 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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3.Association of ADHD and Celiac Disease: What Is the Evidence? A Systematic Review of the Literature.
Ertürk E, Wouters S, Imeraj L, Lampo A.
J Atten Disord. 2016 Jan 29. pii: 1087054715611493. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 26825336 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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4.Celiac disease with neurologic manifestations in children.
Diaconu G, Burlea M, Grigore I, Anton DT, Trandafir LM.
Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2013 Jan-Mar;117(1):88-94.
PMID: 24505898 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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5.Callous-unemotional traits, proactive aggression, and treatment outcomes of aggressive children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Blader JC, Pliszka SR, Kafantaris V, Foley CA, Crowell JA, Carlson GA, Sauder CL, Margulies DM, Sinha C, Sverd J, Matthews TL, Bailey BY, Daviss WB.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 Dec;52(12):1281-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2013.08.024. Epub 2013 Sep 25.
PMID: 24290461 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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6.[Study on the association between diet, nutrient and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among children in Shanghai, Kunshan, Wuxi three kindergarten].
Liu J, He P, Li L, Shen T, Wu M, Hu J, Zhuang Y, Yin J, He G.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2014 Mar;43(2):235-9. Chinese.
PMID: 24868975 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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7.Diet in the treatment of ADHD in children – a systematic review of the literature.
Heilskov Rytter MJ, Andersen LB, Houmann T, Bilenberg N, Hvolby A, Mølgaard C, Michaelsen KF, Lauritzen L.
Nord J Psychiatry. 2015 Jan;69(1):1-18. doi: 10.3109/08039488.2014.921933. Epub 2014 Jun 16. Review.
PMID: 24934907 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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8.Low dopamine function in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: should genotyping signify early diagnosis in children?
Gold MS, Blum K, Oscar-Berman M, Braverman ER.
Postgrad Med. 2014 Jan;126(1):153-77. doi: 10.3810/pgm.2014.01.2735. Review.
PMID: 24393762 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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9.[Dietary patterns in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].
Durá Travé T, Diez Bayona V, Yoldi Petri ME, Aguilera Albesa S.
An Pediatr (Barc). 2014 Apr;80(4):206-13. doi: 10.1016/j.anpedi.2013.05.013. Epub 2013 Jul 3. Spanish.
PMID: 23830679 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free Article
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10.[Neurotrophic factors and their importance in attention deficit hyperactivity disorde].
Ramos-Quiroga JA, Sánchez-Mora C, Corominas M, Martínez I, Barrau V, Prats L, Casas M, Ribasés M.
Rev Neurol. 2014 Feb 24;58 Suppl 1:S19-24. Review. Spanish.
PMID: 25252662 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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11.Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during temporal discounting in youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism and comorbid ADHD and Autism.
Chantiluke K, Christakou A, Murphy CM, Giampietro V, Daly EM, Ecker C, Brammer M, Murphy DG; MRC AIMS Consortium, Rubia K.
Psychiatry Res. 2014 Aug 30;223(2):113-20. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.04.006. Epub 2014 Apr 19.
PMID: 24929553 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free Article
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12.A review of fronto-striatal and fronto-cortical brain abnormalities in children and adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and new evidence for dysfunction in adults with ADHD during motivation and attention.
Cubillo A, Halari R, Smith A, Taylor E, Rubia K.
Cortex. 2012 Feb;48(2):194-215. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2011.04.007. Epub 2011 Apr 27.
PMID: 21575934 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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13.Disorder-specific dissociation of orbitofrontal dysfunction in boys with pure conduct disorder during reward and ventrolateral prefrontal dysfunction in boys with pure ADHD during sustained attention.
Rubia K, Smith AB, Halari R, Matsukura F, Mohammad M, Taylor E, Brammer MJ.
Am J Psychiatry. 2009 Jan;166(1):83-94. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08020212. Epub 2008 Oct 1.
PMID: 18829871 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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14.“Cool” inferior frontostriatal dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder versus “hot” ventromedial orbitofrontal-limbic dysfunction in conduct disorder: a review.
Rubia K.
Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Jun 15;69(12):e69-87. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.09.023. Epub 2010 Nov 20. Review.
PMID: 21094938 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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15.Brain lateralization and self-reported symptoms of ADHD in a population sample of adults: a dimensional approach.
Mohamed SM, Börger NA, Geuze RH, van der Meere JJ.
Front Psychol. 2015 Sep 22;6:1418. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01418. eCollection 2015.
PMID: 26441789 [PubMed] Free PMC Article
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16.Food allergy and food-based therapies in neurodevelopmental disorders.
de Theije CG, Bavelaar BM, Lopes da Silva S, Korte SM, Olivier B, Garssen J, Kraneveld AD.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2014 May;25(3):218-26. doi: 10.1111/pai.12149. Epub 2013 Nov 17. Review.
PMID: 24236934 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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17.Are autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder different manifestations of one overarching disorder? Cognitive and symptom evidence from a clinical and population-based sample.
van der Meer JM, Oerlemans AM, van Steijn DJ, Lappenschaar MG, de Sonneville LM, Buitelaar JK, Rommelse NN.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012 Nov;51(11):1160-1172.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2012.08.024. Epub 2012 Sep 30.
PMID: 23101742 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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18.Could yeast infections impair recovery from mental illness? A case study using micronutrients and olive leaf extract for the treatment of ADHD and depression.
Rucklidge JJ.
Adv Mind Body Med. 2013 Summer;27(3):14-8.
PMID: 23784606 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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19.A possible link between early probiotic intervention and the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders later in childhood: a randomized trial.
Pärtty A, Kalliomäki M, Wacklin P, Salminen S, Isolauri E.
Pediatr Res. 2015 Jun;77(6):823-8. doi: 10.1038/pr.2015.51. Epub 2015 Mar 11.
PMID: 25760553 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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20.Gut-Microbiota-Brain Axis and Its Effect on Neuropsychiatric Disorders With Suspected Immune Dysregulation.
Petra AI, Panagiotidou S, Hatziagelaki E, Stewart JM, Conti P, Theoharides TC.
Clin Ther. 2015 May 1;37(5):984-95. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2015.04.002. Review.
PMID: 26046241 [PubMed – in process]
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21.Intracerebroventricular injection of propionic acid, an enteric metabolite implicated in autism, induces social abnormalities that do not differ between seizure-prone (FAST) and seizure-resistant (SLOW) rats.
Shultz SR, Aziz NA, Yang L, Sun M, MacFabe DF, O’Brien TJ.
Behav Brain Res. 2015 Feb 1;278:542-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2014.10.050. Epub 2014 Nov 6.
PMID: 25446754 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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22.Methylphenidate exerts dose-dependent effects on glutamate receptors and behaviors.
Cheng J, Xiong Z, Duffney LJ, Wei J, Liu A, Liu S, Chen GJ, Yan Z.
Biol Psychiatry. 2014 Dec 15;76(12):953-62. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.04.003. Epub 2014 Apr 12.
PMID: 24832867 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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23.Types of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): baseline characteristics, initial response, and long-term response to treatment with methylphenidate.
Reimherr FW, Marchant BK, Gift TE, Steans TA, Wender PH.
Atten Defic Hyperact Disord. 2015 Jun;7(2):115-28. doi: 10.1007/s12402-015-0176-z. Epub 2015 May 19.
PMID: 25987323 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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24.Changes of Heart Rate Variability during Methylphenidate Treatment in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children: A 12-Week Prospective Study.
Kim HJ, Yang J, Lee MS.
Yonsei Med J. 2015 Sep;56(5):1365-71. doi: 10.3349/ymj.2015.56.5.1365.
PMID: 26256981 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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25.Predicting methylphenidate response in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary study.
Johnston BA, Coghill D, Matthews K, Steele JD.
J Psychopharmacol. 2015 Jan;29(1):24-30. doi: 10.1177/0269881114548438. Epub 2014 Sep 18.
PMID: 25237119 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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26.Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and interictal epileptiform discharges: it is safe to use methylphenidate?
Socanski D, Aurlien D, Herigstad A, Thomsen PH, Larsen TK.
Seizure. 2015 Feb;25:80-3. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2015.01.002. Epub 2015 Jan 8.
PMID: 25645642 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free Article
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27.Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an updated review of the essential facts.
Tarver J, Daley D, Sayal K.
Child Care Health Dev. 2014 Nov;40(6):762-74. doi: 10.1111/cch.12139. Epub 2014 Apr 14. Review.
PMID: 24725022 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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28.A review of the pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Sharma A, Couture J.
Ann Pharmacother. 2014 Feb;48(2):209-25. doi: 10.1177/1060028013510699. Epub 2013 Nov 1. Review.
PMID: 24259638 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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29.Association between binge eating and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in two pediatric community mental health clinics.
Reinblatt SP, Leoutsakos JM, Mahone EM, Forrester S, Wilcox HC, Riddle MA.
Int J Eat Disord. 2015 Jul;48(5):505-11. doi: 10.1002/eat.22342. Epub 2014 Aug 18.
PMID: 25130278 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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30.Disorder-specific grey matter deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder relative to autism spectrum disorder.
Lim L, Chantiluke K, Cubillo AI, Smith AB, Simmons A, Mehta MA, Rubia K.
Psychol Med. 2015 Apr;45(5):965-76. doi: 10.1017/S0033291714001974. Epub 2014 Sep 17.
PMID: 25229248 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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31.Association of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes and response to methylphenidate HCL treatment: A magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.
Unal GA, Kenar AN, Herken H, Kiroglu Y.
Neurosci Lett. 2015 Sep 14;604:188-92. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2015.08.006. Epub 2015 Aug 6.
PMID: 26257254 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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32.[Therapeutic effects of exercise-based treatment programme on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder].
Zhang J, Wen F, Zhang J, Xiao J, Zhang W, Zhou K, Chen Y.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2014 Apr;52(4):287-91. Chinese.
PMID: 24915917 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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33.A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Neuroimaging in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) Taking Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Into Account.
Noordermeer SD, Luman M, Oosterlaan J.
Neuropsychol Rev. 2016 Mar;26(1):44-72. doi: 10.1007/s11065-015-9315-8. Epub 2016 Feb 5.
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34.Disrupted functional connectivity of cerebellar default network areas in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Kucyi A, Hove MJ, Biederman J, Van Dijk KR, Valera EM.
Hum Brain Mapp. 2015 Sep;36(9):3373-86. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22850. Epub 2015 Jun 24.
PMID: 26109476 [PubMed – in process]
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35.Prevention of cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.
Strickland AD.
Med Hypotheses. 2014 May;82(5):522-8. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2014.02.003. Epub 2014 Feb 12.
PMID: 24581674 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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36.Anti-Purkinje cell antibody as a biological marker in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study.
Passarelli F, Donfrancesco R, Nativio P, Pascale E, Di Trani M, Patti AM, Vulcano A, Gozzo P, Villa MP.
J Neuroimmunol. 2013 May 15;258(1-2):67-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2013.02.018. Epub 2013 Mar 16.
PMID: 23510584 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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37.A link between perianal strep and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS).
Toufexis M, Deoleo C, Elia J, Murphy TK.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2014 Apr 1;26(2):164-8. doi: 10.1176/appi.neuropsych.12050126.
PMID: 24763762 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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38.Comorbidity of Allergic and Autoimmune Diseases Among Patients With ADHD: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.
Chen MH, Su TP, Chen YS, Hsu JW, Huang KL, Chang WH, Chen TJ, Bai YM.
J Atten Disord. 2013 Feb 11. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 23400216 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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39.Antibasal Ganglia Antibodies and Antistreptolysin O in Noncomorbid ADHD.
Toto M, Margari F, Simone M, Craig F, Petruzzelli MG, Tafuri S, Margari L.
J Atten Disord. 2015 Nov;19(11):965-70. doi: 10.1177/1087054712455505. Epub 2012 Sep 5.
PMID: 22956712 [PubMed – in process]
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40.The immunobiology of Tourette’s disorder, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with Streptococcus, and related disorders: a way forward.
Murphy TK, Kurlan R, Leckman J.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2010 Aug;20(4):317-31. doi: 10.1089/cap.2010.0043. Review.
PMID: 20807070 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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41.Anti-basal ganglia antibodies in primary obsessive-compulsive disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Pearlman DM, Vora HS, Marquis BG, Najjar S, Dudley LA.
Br J Psychiatry. 2014 Jul;205(1):8-16. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.113.137018. Review.
PMID: 24986387 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free Article
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42.Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy in Sydenham’s chorea and ADHD.
Margari L, Ventura P, Portoghese C, Presicci A, Buttiglione M, Di Cuonzo F.
Pediatr Neurol. 2006 Jun;34(6):467-73.
PMID: 16765826 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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43.Psychoendocrine and psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms in the comorbidity of atopic eczema and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Buske-Kirschbaum A, Schmitt J, Plessow F, Romanos M, Weidinger S, Roessner V.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013 Jan;38(1):12-23. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.09.017. Epub 2012 Nov 8. Review.
PMID: 23141851 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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44.Detection of auto-antibodies to DAT in the serum: interactions with DAT genotype and psycho-stimulant therapy for ADHD.
Giana G, Romano E, Porfirio MC, D’Ambrosio R, Giovinazzo S, Troianiello M, Barlocci E, Travaglini D, Granstrem O, Pascale E, Tarani L, Curatolo P, Laviola G, Adriani W.
J Neuroimmunol. 2015 Jan 15;278:212-22. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2014.11.008. Epub 2014 Nov 18.
PMID: 25468771 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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45.[Immunological and endocrinological pattern in ADHD etiopathogenesis].
Budziszewska B, Basta-Kaim A, Kubera M, Laso? W.
Przegl Lek. 2010;67(11):1200-4. Review. Polish.
PMID: 21442976 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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46.Anti-Basal Ganglia Antibodies and Streptococcal Infection in ADHD.
Aguilera-Albesa S, Crespo-Eguílaz N, Del Pozo JL, Villoslada P, Sánchez-Carpintero R.
J Atten Disord. 2015 Apr 16. pii: 1087054715580841. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 25882837 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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