PHT Live – Metabolic Syndrome, Diabetes and Pre-diabetes, as They Relate to the Gastrointestinal Tract

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This week we have a fantastic hangout on Metabolic Syndrome, Diabetes and Pre-diabetes, as they relate to the gastrointestinal tract.  If you, a loved one, or a friend have one of these conditions, this hangout is a must to watch (we know, we are biased).  In this broadcast we are going to cover the nuances of these conditions and a plethora of literature which supports the gastrointestinal tract as a key player in these conditions.

For some time it has been known that inflammation is associated with these conditions, yet the newest literature is showing that this inflammation is in part coming from the gastrointestinal tract.  Even more interestingly, it has now been shown that this inflammation from the gastrointestinal tract, which is actually from pieces of bacteria that are floating around in our blood stream, lead to insulin resistance and eventually diabetes. More importantly, the literature is also demonstrating that this bacterial and inflammation problem in the gut can be corrected.

Please enjoy the hangout!

1. Amorphous solid dispersion of berberine with absorption enhancer demonstrates a remarkable hypoglycemic effect via improving its bioavailability.
Zhaojie M, Ming Z, Shengnan W, Xiaojia B, Hatch GM, Jingkai G, Li C.
Int J Pharm. 2014 Mar 5;467(1-2):50-59. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.03.017. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 24607213 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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2. Replication of obesity and associated signaling pathways through transfer of microbiota from obese prone rat.
Duca FA, Sakar Y, Lepage P, Devime F, Langelier B, Doré J, Covasa M.
Diabetes. 2014 Jan 15. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 24430437 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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3. Increased circulatory levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and zonulin signify novel biomarkers of proinflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Jayashree B, Bibin YS, Prabhu D, Shanthirani CS, Gokulakrishnan K, Lakshmi BS, Mohan V, Balasubramanyam M.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2014 Mar;388(1-2):203-10. doi: 10.1007/s11010-013-1911-4. Epub 2013 Dec 18.
PMID: 24347174 [PubMed – in process]
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4. Irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease and the microbiome.
Major G, Spiller R.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2014 Feb;21(1):15-21. doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000032.
PMID: 24296462 [PubMed – in process] Free PMC Article
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5. Increased intestinal permeability to oral chromium (<sup>51</sup> Cr) -EDTA in human Type 2 diabetes.
Horton F, Wright J, Smith L, Hinton PJ, Robertson MD.
Diabet Med. 2013 Nov 16. doi: 10.1111/dme.12360. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 24236770 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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6. The role of gastrointestinal hormones in hepatic lipid metabolism.
Mells JE, Anania FA.
Semin Liver Dis. 2013 Nov;33(4):343-57. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1358527. Epub 2013 Nov 12.
PMID: 24222092 [PubMed – in process] Free PMC Article
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7. Hepatic function and the cardiometabolic syndrome.
Wiernsperger N.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2013 Oct 10;6:379-388. eCollection 2013. Review.
PMID: 24143116 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher] Free PMC Article
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8. The intricate association between gut microbiota and development of type 1, type 2 and type 3 diabetes.
Bekkering P, Jafri I, van Overveld FJ, Rijkers GT.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2013 Nov;9(11):1031-41. doi: 10.1586/1744666X.2013.848793. Epub 2013 Oct 21.
PMID: 24138599 [PubMed – in process]
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9. Human intestinal microbiota and type 1 diabetes.
Vaarala O.
Curr Diab Rep. 2013 Oct;13(5):601-7. doi: 10.1007/s11892-013-0409-5. Review.
PMID: 23934614 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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10. Influence of gut microbiota on subclinical inflammation and insulin resistance.
Carvalho BM, Saad MJ.
Mediators Inflamm. 2013;2013:986734. doi: 10.1155/2013/986734. Epub 2013 Jun 12. Review.
PMID: 23840101 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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11. Alteration of the intestinal barrier and GLP2 secretion in Berberine-treated type 2 diabetic rats.
Shan CY, Yang JH, Kong Y, Wang XY, Zheng MY, Xu YG, Wang Y, Ren HZ, Chang BC, Chen LM.
J Endocrinol. 2013 Jul 29;218(3):255-62. doi: 10.1530/JOE-13-0184. Print 2013 Sep.
PMID: 23757509 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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12. Probiotics as potential biotherapeutics in the management of type 2 diabetes – prospects and perspectives.
Panwar H, Rashmi HM, Batish VK, Grover S.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2013 Feb;29(2):103-12. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.2376. Review.
PMID: 23225499 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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13. [New insights into adipose cell biology].
Burcelin R.
Bull Acad Natl Med. 2013 Jan;197(1):79-92. French.
PMID: 24672981 [PubMed – in process]
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14. Techniques of functional and motility test: how to perform and interpret intestinal permeability.
Mishra A, Makharia GK.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2012 Oct;18(4):443-7. doi: 10.5056/jnm.2012.18.4.443. Epub 2012 Oct 9.
PMID: 23106006 [PubMed] Free PMC Article
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15. Metabolic diseases and pro- and prebiotics: Mechanistic insights.
Nakamura YK, Omaye ST.
Nutr Metab (Lond). 2012 Jun 19;9(1):60. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-9-60.
PMID: 22713169 [PubMed] Free PMC Article
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16. [Evaluation of biological and clinical potential of paleolithic diet].
Kowalski LM, Bujko J.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2012;63(1):9-15. Polish.
PMID: 22642064 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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17. Circulating zonulin, a marker of intestinal permeability, is increased in association with obesity-associated insulin resistance.
Moreno-Navarrete JM, Sabater M, Ortega F, Ricart W, Fernández-Real JM.
PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e37160. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037160. Epub 2012 May 18.
PMID: 22629362 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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18. Is the origin of type 1 diabetes in the gut?
Vaarala O.
Immunol Cell Biol. 2012 Mar;90(3):271-6. doi: 10.1038/icb.2011.115. Epub 2012 Jan 31. Review.
PMID: 22290506 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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19. Enterocytes’ tight junctions: From molecules to diseases.
Assimakopoulos SF, Papageorgiou I, Charonis A.
World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. 2011 Dec 15;2(6):123-37. doi: 10.4291/wjgp.v2.i6.123.
PMID: 22184542 [PubMed] Free PMC Article
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20. Lower expression of tight junction protein 1 gene and increased FOXP3 expression in the small bowel mucosa in coeliac disease and associated type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Vorobjova T, Uibo O, Ojakivi I, Teesalu K, Panarina M, Heilman K, Uibo R.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2011;156(4):451-61. doi: 10.1159/000324456. Epub 2011 Aug 10.
PMID: 21832836 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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21. The gut as a regulator of early inflammation in type 1 diabetes.
Vaarala O.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2011 Aug;18(4):241-7. doi: 10.1097/MED.0b013e3283488218. Review.
PMID: 21681088 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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22. What causes type 1 diabetes? Lessons from animal models.
Buschard K.
APMIS Suppl. 2011 Jul;(132):1-19. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0463.2011.02765.x. Review.
PMID: 21615797 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free Article
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23. Leaky gut and diabetes mellitus: what is the link?
de Kort S, Keszthelyi D, Masclee AA.
Obes Rev. 2011 Jun;12(6):449-58. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00845.x. Epub 2011 Mar 8. Review.
PMID: 21382153 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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24. Celiac disease in patients with type 1 diabetes: a condition with distinct changes in intestinal immunity?
Uibo R, Panarina M, Teesalu K, Talja I, Sepp E, Utt M, Mikelsaar M, Heilman K, Uibo O, Vorobjova T.
Cell Mol Immunol. 2011 Mar;8(2):150-6. doi: 10.1038/cmi.2010.66. Epub 2011 Feb 14.
PMID: 21317917 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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25. Involvement of the gut microbiota in the development of low grade inflammation associated with obesity: focus on this neglected partner.
Cani PD, Delzenne NM.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 2010 Apr-Jun;73(2):267-9.
PMID: 20690567 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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26. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies are frequent in type 1 diabetes.
Sakly W, Mankaï A, Sakly N, Thabet Y, Achour A, Ghedira-Besbes L, Jeddi M, Ghedira I.
Endocr Pathol. 2010 Jun;21(2):108-14. doi: 10.1007/s12022-010-9118-7.
PMID: 20387011 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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27. Dietary fat and bile juice, but not obesity, are responsible for the increase in small intestinal permeability induced through the suppression of tight junction protein expression in LETO and OLETF rats.
Suzuki T, Hara H.
Nutr Metab (Lond). 2010 Mar 12;7:19. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-7-19.
PMID: 20222989 [PubMed] Free PMC Article
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28. Gut barrier disruption by an enteric bacterial pathogen accelerates insulitis in NOD mice.
Lee AS, Gibson DL, Zhang Y, Sham HP, Vallance BA, Dutz JP.
Diabetologia. 2010 Apr;53(4):741-8. doi: 10.1007/s00125-009-1626-y. Epub 2009 Dec 13.
PMID: 20012858 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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