Is Lyme Disease the Cause of Alzheimer’s?

Today we are delving into Lyme disease again.  Rarely do we come  across a topic with such diametrically  opposed opinions. In today’s broadcast we will present some of the literature regarding Alzheimer’s disease being  caused by Lyme disease.

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References:
1. A lack of correlation between the incidence of lyme disease and deaths due to Alzheimer’s disease.
O’Day DH, Catalano A.
J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;42(1):115-8. doi: 10.3233/JAD-140552.
PMID: 24840565 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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2. Nervous system lyme disease: is there a controversy?
Halperin JJ.
Semin Neurol. 2011 Jul;31(3):317-24. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1287652. Epub 2011 Sep 30. Review.
PMID: 21964848 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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3. Borrelia burgdorferi persists in the brain in chronic lyme neuroborreliosis and may be associated with Alzheimer disease.
Miklossy J, Khalili K, Gern L, Ericson RL, Darekar P, Bolle L, Hurlimann J, Paster BJ.
J Alzheimers Dis. 2004 Dec;6(6):639-49; discussion 673-81.
PMID: 15665404 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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4. Plaques of Alzheimer’s disease originate from cysts of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete.
MacDonald AB.
Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(3):592-600. Epub 2006 May 3.
PMID: 16675154 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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5. Alzheimer’s disease Braak Stage progressions: reexamined and redefined as Borrelia infection transmission through neural circuits.
MacDonald AB.
Med Hypotheses. 2007;68(5):1059-64. Epub 2006 Nov 17.
PMID: 17113237 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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6. Transfection “Junk” DNA – a link to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease?
MacDonald AB.
Med Hypotheses. 2006;66(6):1140-1. Epub 2006 Feb 14.
PMID: 16481123 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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7. Concurrent neocortical borreliosis and Alzheimer’s disease.
MacDonald AB, Miranda JM.
Hum Pathol. 1987 Jul;18(7):759-61.
PMID: 3297997 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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8. A life cycle for Borrelia spirochetes?
MacDonald AB.
Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(4):810-8. Epub 2006 May 22.
PMID: 16716532 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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9. Alzheimer’s neuroborreliosis with trans-synaptic spread of infection and neurofibrillary tangles derived from intraneuronal spirochetes.
MacDonald AB.
Med Hypotheses. 2007;68(4):822-5. Epub 2006 Oct 20.
PMID: 17055667 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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10. Spirochetal cyst forms in neurodegenerative disorders,…hiding in plain sight.
MacDonald AB.
Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(4):819-32. Epub 2006 Jul 7.
PMID: 16828236 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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11. Use of an autologous antigen in the serologic testing of patients with erythema migrans of Lyme disease.
Berger BW, MacDonald AB, Benach JL.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988 Jun;18(6):1243-6.
PMID: 3290287 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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12. Interstitial cystitis and Borrelia burgdorferi.
Schwan TG, MacDonald AB.
Ann Intern Med. 1989 Sep 15;111(6):537. No abstract available.
PMID: 2774376 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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13. Stillbirth following maternal Lyme disease.
MacDonald AB, Benach JL, Burgdorfer W.
N Y State J Med. 1987 Nov;87(11):615-6. No abstract available.
PMID: 3480464 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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14. Temporal arteritis associated with Borrelia infection. A case report.
Pizzarello LD, MacDonald AB, Semlear R, DiLeo F, Berger B.
J Clin Neuroophthalmol. 1989 Mar;9(1):3-6.
PMID: 2522942 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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15. Giant cell arteritis and Borrelia infection.
MacDonald AB.
J Clin Neuroophthalmol. 1987 Sep;7(3):180-1. No abstract available.
PMID: 2958514 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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16. Lyme disease. A neuro-ophthalmologic view.
MacDonald AB.
J Clin Neuroophthalmol. 1987 Dec;7(4):185-90. Review.
PMID: 2963023 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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17. Gestational Lyme borreliosis. Implications for the fetus.
MacDonald AB.
Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1989 Nov;15(4):657-77. Review.
PMID: 2685924 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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18. Borrelia burgdorferi tissue morphologies and imaging methodologies.
MacDonald AB.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013 Aug;32(8):1077-82. doi: 10.1007/s10096-013-1853-5. Epub 2013 Mar 12.
PMID: 23479042 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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19. No evidence for contamination of Borrelia blood cultures: a review of facts.
MacDonald AB.
J Clin Microbiol. 2014 May;52(5):1803. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02275-13. No abstract available.
PMID: 24744404 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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20. Characterization of biofilm formation by Borrelia burgdorferi in vitro.
Sapi E, Bastian SL, Mpoy CM, Scott S, Rattelle A, Pabbati N, Poruri A, Burugu D, Theophilus PA, Pham TV, Datar A, Dhaliwal NK, MacDonald A, Rossi MJ, Sinha SK, Luecke DF.
PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e48277. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048277. Epub 2012 Oct 24.
PMID: 23110225 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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21. Evidence of In Vivo Existence of Borrelia Biofilm in Borrelial Lymphocytomas.
Sapi E, Balasubramanian K, Poruri A, Maghsoudlou JS, Socarras KM, Timmaraju AV, Filush KR, Gupta K, Shaikh S, Theophilus PA, Luecke DF, MacDonald A, Zelger B.
Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp). 2016 Feb 9;6(1):9-24. doi: 10.1556/1886.2015.00049. eCollection 2016 Mar.
PMID: 27141311 [PubMed] Free PMC Article
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22. Clinical implications of delayed growth of the Lyme borreliosis spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi.
MacDonald AB, Berger BW, Schwan TG.
Acta Trop. 1990 Dec;48(2):89-94.
PMID: 1980573 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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23. Human fetal borreliosis, toxemia of pregnancy, and fetal death.
MacDonald AB.
Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1986 Dec;263(1-2):189-200. No abstract available.
PMID: 3554838 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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24. Acute postnatal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate adversely impacts hippocampal development in the male rat.
Smith CA, Macdonald A, Holahan MR.
Neuroscience. 2011 Oct 13;193:100-8. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.06.082. Epub 2011 Jul 18.
PMID: 21782900 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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25. Borrelia in the brains of patients dying with dementia.
MacDonald AB.
JAMA. 1986 Oct 24-31;256(16):2195-6. No abstract available.
PMID: 3761515 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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26. Impact of Wildfire Emissions on Chloride and Bromide Depletion in Marine Aerosol Particles.
Braun RA, Dadashazar H, MacDonald AB, Aldhaif AM, Maudlin LC, Crosbie E, Aghdam MA, Hossein Mardi A, Sorooshian A.
Environ Sci Technol. 2017 Jul 27. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.7b02039. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28700243 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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27. Nutrition and shiftwork: evaluation of new paramedics’ knowledge and attitudes.
Macdonald AB, Rossiter MD, Jensen JL.
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2013 Winter;74(4):198-201.
PMID: 24472169 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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28. Development and psychometric evaluation of a brief version of the hyperventilation questionnaire: the HVQ-B.
Sabourin BC, Stewart SH, Watt MC, Macdonald AB.
Cogn Behav Ther. 2013;42(3):193-202. doi: 10.1080/16506073.2012.756059. Epub 2013 May 22.
PMID: 23697597 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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29. Acute and general medicine on opposite sides of the world.
MacDonald AB.
Acute Med. 2011;10(2):67-8. No abstract available.
PMID: 22041603 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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30. What does the future hold for general medicine?
Jenkins PF, Thompson CH, MacDonald AB.
Med J Aust. 2011 Jul 4;195(1):49-50.
PMID: 21728946 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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31. Molecular cloning, ontogeny and tissue distribution of zebrafish (Danio rerio) prohormone convertases: pcsk1 and pcsk2.
Morash MG, MacDonald AB, Croll RP, Anini Y.
Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2009 Jun;162(2):179-87. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2009.03.013. Epub 2009 Mar 28.
PMID: 19332069 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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32. The roles of alcohol and alcohol expectancy in the dampening of responses to hyperventilation among high anxiety sensitive young adults.
MacDonald AB, Stewart SH, Hutson R, Rhyno E, Loughlin HL.
Addict Behav. 2001 Nov-Dec;26(6):841-67.
PMID: 11768548 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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33. Effects of alcohol on the response to hyperventilation of participants high and low in anxiety sensitivity.
MacDonald AB, Baker JM, Stewart SH, Skinner M.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2000 Nov;24(11):1656-65.
PMID: 11104113 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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34. Biochemical and functional antigenic mimicry by a polyclonal anti-idiotypic antibody for chlamydial exoglycolipid antigen.
An LL, Hudson AP, Prendergast RA, O’Brien TP, Stuart ES, Whittum-Hudson JA, MacDonald AB.
Pathobiology. 1997;65(5):229-40. Erratum in: Pathobiology 1998;66(1):48.
PMID: 9459493 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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35. Oral immunization with an anti-idiotypic antibody to the exoglycolipid antigen protects against experimental Chlamydia trachomatis infection.
Whittum-Hudson JA, An LL, Saltzman WM, Prendergast RA, MacDonald AB.
Nat Med. 1996 Oct;2(10):1116-21.
PMID: 8837610 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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36. The rightward gas vesicle operon in Halobacterium plasmid pNRC100: identification of the gvpA and gvpC gene products by use of antibody probes and genetic analysis of the region downstream of gvpC.
Halladay JT, Jones JG, Lin F, MacDonald AB, DasSarma S.
J Bacteriol. 1993 Feb;175(3):684-92.
PMID: 8423144 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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37. Examination of chlamydial glycolipid with monoclonal antibodies: cellular distribution and epitope binding.
Stuart ES, Wyrick PB, Choong J, Stoler SB, MacDonald AB.
Immunology. 1991 Dec;74(4):740-7.
PMID: 1723717 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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38. Some characteristics of a secreted chlamydial antigen recognized by IgG from C. trachomatis patient sera.
Stuart ES, Macdonald AB.
Immunology. 1989 Dec;68(4):469-73.
PMID: 2606506 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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39. Anti-idiotypic antibodies that protect cells against the action of diphtheria toxin.
Rolf JM, Gaudin HM, Tirrell SM, MacDonald AB, Eidels L.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Mar;86(6):2036-9.
PMID: 2467297 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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40. Characterization of an antigen secreted by Chlamydia-infected cell culture.
Stuart ES, Tirrell SM, MacDonald AB.
Immunology. 1987 Aug;61(4):527-33.
PMID: 3443454 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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41. Oral immunization against chlamydial eye infection.
Taylor HR, Young E, MacDonald AB, Schachter J, Prendergast RA.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1987 Feb;28(2):249-58.
PMID: 8591904 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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42. Antigens of Chlamydia trachomatis.
MacDonald AB.
Rev Infect Dis. 1985 Nov-Dec;7(6):731-6.
PMID: 2999944 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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43. Nonvariant antigens limited to bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.
Beat DA, Stanley HA, Choroma?ski L, MacDonald AB, Honigberg BM.
J Protozool. 1984 Nov;31(4):541-8.
PMID: 6439856 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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44. A case of crystal formation in bone marrow.
Carter KJ, Jones JD, Mandel NS, Mandel GS, MacDonald AB.
Clin Chem. 1984 Jul;30(7):1267-8. No abstract available.
PMID: 6733919 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free Article
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45. Immune response of owl monkeys to topical vaccination with irradiated Chlamydia trachomatis.
MacDonald AB, McComb D, Howard L.
J Infect Dis. 1984 Mar;149(3):439-42.
PMID: 6715899 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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46. Inhibition of cholesterol side chain cleavage by active site directed antibody to corpus luteum cytochrome P-450.
Kashiwagi K, MacDonald AB, Salhanick HA.
J Biol Chem. 1982 Mar 10;257(5):2212-7.
PMID: 6895894 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free Article
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47. The conversion of an enhancing factor to a suppressor factor by the formation of an aggregate molecule.
Mulcahy HL, Rubin AS, MacDonald AB.
Immunology. 1981 Jan;42(1):37-43.
PMID: 7007220 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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48. Purification and properties of a factor from leukaemic T cells which non-specifically enhances the antibody response.
Mulcahy HL, Rubin AS, MacDonald AB.
Immunology. 1981 Jan;42(1):25-35.
PMID: 7007219 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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49. Isolation and purification of a type-specific antigen from Chlamydia trachomatis propagated in cell culture utilizing molecular shift chromatography.
Hourihan JT, Rota TR, MacDonald AB.
J Immunol. 1980 May;124(5):2399-404.
PMID: 6154102 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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50. Changes in immunoferritin labeling of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi after serial cultivation in 60Co-irradiated BHK cells.
Rikihisa Y, Rota T, Lee TH, MacDonald AB, Ito S.
Infect Immun. 1979 Nov;26(2):638-50.
PMID: 121111 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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51. Isolation of a type-specific antigen from Chlamydia trachomatis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
Sacks DL, MacDonald AB.
J Immunol. 1979 Jan;122(1):136-9.
PMID: 84016 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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52. Cell-mediated immune responses in owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus) with trachoma to soluble antigens of Chlamydia trachomatis.
Sacks DL, Todd WJ, Macdonald AB.
Clin Exp Immunol. 1978 Jul;33(1):57-64.
PMID: 101327 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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53. Separation and partial characterization of a type-specific antigen from Chlamydia trachomatis.
Sacks DL, Rota TR, MacDonald AB.
J Immunol. 1978 Jul;121(1):204-8.
PMID: 78941 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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54. Isolation and partial characterization of an antibody enhancing factor from leukaemic owl monkey cell cultures.
MacDonald AB, Fraser CE, Rubin AS.
Immunology. 1978 Jan;34(1):137-47.
PMID: 342395 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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55. Neutralization of tetanus toxin by human and rabbit immunoglobulin classes and subunits.
Ourth DD, MacDonald AB.
Immunology. 1977 Dec;33(6):807-15.
PMID: 590997 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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56. Partial characterization of an immunoenhancing factor from allogeneic human lymphocyte cell lines.
Rubin AS, Macdonald AB.
Immunology. 1976 Jan;30(1):69-81.
PMID: 765266 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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57. Immunity to chlamydial infections of the eye. IV. Immunity in owl monkeys to reinfection with trachoma.
Fraser CE, McComb DE, Murray ES, MacDonald AB.
Arch Ophthalmol. 1975 Jul;93(7):518-21.
PMID: 166634 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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58. An indirect immunofluorescent test for human antibodies to tetanus toxoid using an insoluble toxoid as antigen.
Ourth DD, Murray ES, MacDonald AB, Spielman JM.
Clin Exp Immunol. 1975 Mar;19(3):571-7.
PMID: 1106916 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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59. The role of immunoglobulin in the neutralization of trachoma infectivity.
Barenfanger J, MacDonald AB.
J Immunol. 1974 Nov;113(5):1607-17. No abstract available.
PMID: 4214333 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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60. Specific heterologous enhancement of immune responses. VI. Partial purification of a nonspecific enhancing factor from supernates of allogeneically stimulated human lymphocyte cell lines.
Rubin AS, MacDonald AB, Coons AH.
J Exp Med. 1974 Feb 1;139(2):439-44.
PMID: 4855755 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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61. Specific heterologous enhancement of immune responses. V. Isolation of a soluble enhancing factor from supernatants of specifically stimulated and allogeneically induced lymphoid cells.
Rubin AS, MacDonald AB, Coons AH.
J Immunol. 1973 Nov;111(5):1314-25. No abstract available.
PMID: 4583072 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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62. Immunity to chlamydial infections of the eye. 3. Presence and duration of delayed hypersensitivity to guinea pig inclusion conjuctivitis.
Watson RR, MacDonald AB, Murray ES, Modabber FZ.
J Immunol. 1973 Aug;111(2):618-23. No abstract available.
PMID: 4736938 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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63. Immunity to chlamydial infections of the eye. I. The role of circulatory and secretory antibodies in resistance to reinfection with guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis.
Murray ES, Charbonnet LT, MacDonald AB.
J Immunol. 1973 Jun;110(6):1518-25. No abstract available.
PMID: 4576503 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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64. Immunity to chlamydial infections of the eye. VI. Homologous neutralization of trachoma infectivity for the owl monkey conjuctivae by eye secretions from humans with trachoma.
Nichols RL, Oertley RE, Fraser EC, MacDonald AB, McComb DE.
J Infect Dis. 1973 Apr;127(4):429-32. No abstract available.
PMID: 4632880 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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65. Immunity to chlamydial infections of the eye. II. Studies of passively transferred serum antibody in resistance to infection with guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis.
Watson RR, Mull JD, MacDonald AB, Thompson SE 3rd, Bear SE.
Infect Immun. 1973 Apr;7(4):597-9.
PMID: 4586860 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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66. Quantitative investigations of idiotypic antibodies. 3. Persistence and variations of idiotypic specificities during the course of immunization.
MacDonald AB, Nisonoff A.
J Exp Med. 1970 Mar 1;131(3):583-601.
PMID: 5413330 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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67. Quantitative investigations of idiotypic antibodies. II. Nonprecipitating antibodies.
Hopper JE, MacDonald AB, Nisonoff A.
J Exp Med. 1970 Jan 1;131(1):41-56.
PMID: 5308065 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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68. Quantitative studies of idiotypic antibodies.
Nisonoff A, Macdonald AB, Hopper JE, Daugharty H.
Fed Proc. 1970 Jan-Feb;29(1):72-7. No abstract available.
PMID: 4983815 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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69. Quantitative investigations of idiotypic antibodies. I. Analysis of precipitating antibody populations.
Daugharty H, Hopper JE, MacDonald AB, Nisonoff A.
J Exp Med. 1969 Nov 1;130(5):1047-62.
PMID: 5347693 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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70. Purification and properties of a nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase from red cells of the rabbit.
Chern CJ, MacDonald AB, Morris AJ.
J Biol Chem. 1969 Oct 25;244(20):5489-95. No abstract available.
PMID: 4310599 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free Article
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71. Biosynthesis of antibody molecules with similar properties during prolonged immunization.
MacDonal

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